Introducing Project Heisenberg Cloud
Project Heisenberg Cloud is a Rapid7 Labs research project with a singular purpose: understand what attackers, researchers and organizations are doing in, across and against cloud environments. This research is based on data collected from a new, Rapid7-developed honeypot framework called Heisenberg along with internet reconnaissance data from Rapid7's Project Sonar.
Internet-scale reconnaissance with cloud-inspired automation
Heisenberg honeypots are a modern take on the seminal attacker detection tool. Each Heisenberg node is a lightweight, highly configurable agent that is centrally deployed using well-tested tools, such as terraform, and controlled from a central administration portal. Virtually any honeypot code can be deployed to Heisenberg agents and all agents send back full packet captures for post-interaction analysis.
One of the main goals of Heisenberg it to understand attacker methodology. All interaction and packet capture data is synchronized to a central collector and all real-time logs are fed directly into Rapid7's Logentries for live monitoring and historical data mining.
Insights into cloud configs and attacker methodology
Rapid7 and Microsoft deployed multiple Heisenberg honeypots in every "zone" of six major cloud providers: Amazon, Azure, Digital Ocean, Rackspace, Google and Softlayer, and examined the service diversity in each of these environments, the type of connection attackers, researchers and organizations are initiating within, against and across these environments.
To paint a picture of the services offered in each cloud provider, the research teams used Sonar data collected during Rapid7's 2016 National Exposure study. Some highlights include:
- The six cloud providers in our study make up nearly 15% of available IPv4 addresses on the internet.
- 22% of Softlayer nodes expose database services (MySQL & SQL Server) directly to the internet.
- Web services are prolific, with 53-80 of nodes in each provider exposing some type of web service.
- Digital Ocean and Google nodes expose shell (Telnet & SSH) services at a much higher rate - 86% and 74%, respectively - than the other four cloud providers in this study.
- A wide range of attacks were detected, including ShellShock, SQL Injection, PHP webshell injection and credentials attacks against ssh, Telnet and remote framebuffer (e.g. VNC, RDP & Citrix).
- Our honeypots caught "data mashup" businesses attempting to use the cloud to mask illegal content scraping activity.
We would like to thank Microsoft and Amazon for engaging with us through the initial stages of this research effort, and as indicated above, we hope they, and other cloud hosting providers will continue to do so as we move forward with the project.